Monday, September 20, 2010

Remnants of Dravidian Name-Heritage in Indus Valley and Beyond

World Classical tamil conference, coimbatore, 2010

Remnants of Dravidian Name-Heritage in Indus Valley and Beyond

The Journey of Names

R.Balakrishnan

24 June, 2010



Using comparative Onomastic tools this paper gathers new evidence to validate the "Dravidian Hypothesis" on the language of Indus Valley Civilization. The study does a 'two-way check' and traces the remnants of Dravidian Name-Heritage in the toponyms of North-Western geographies and locates the vestiges of a probable Indus links in the Onomastic corpus of Cankam literature and in the ethno-geographical designations of the contemporary Tamils as well.




Introduction

0.1 In this paper I advance a mass of Onomastic evidence to say that the toponymic corpuses of countries north-west of India, apart from showing remarkable oneness with many contemporary place names of Tamilnadu, contain numerous place names that remind us of the names of territories, prominent places, hills, rivers, ports and battlefields; names of tribes, clans, kings and chieftains attested in Caṅkam Tamil texts. Besides, based on comparative Onomastic evidences, I propose that the markers for probable Indus connections still remain embedded in the toponymic and ethnonymic glossaries of contemporary Tamils and to prove this point I present a case study of koṅku vēlālar, a Tamil peasant caste, tracing the probable genesis of their territorial names, kāṇi village names and kūṭṭam (clan) names to the north-western geographies.

0.2 Let me testify. I was indeed, awe-struck with disbelief, when I first came across Karikalan, Adiyaman,Pittan, Korran, Tittan, Titian, Korkay, Vanji, Tondi, Attawail etc., as place names in the north-western geographies. It required many years of further research and case studies before I could convince myself about the efficacy of this evidence and decide about sharing the findings in public domain for consideration.

The Issue

1.1 The 'Dravidian Hypothesis' is considered by far the most plausible of all prevailing theories on the language of Indus Valley Civilization (IVC). From the days of John Marshall to this date, various scholars of diverse disciplines ((S.K Chatterji, Piero Meriggi, J.H.Heras, Yuri Knorozov, Kamil.V.Zvelebil, I.Mahadevan, F.C.Southworth, D.Mc Alpin, W.A.Fairservis, Asko Parpola) have added value to this position. (For detailed account, see Asko Parpola 1994, Dilip K. Chakrabarti 2008) I.Mahadevan even concludes that "the Indus script is not merely Dravidian linguistically, but is also culturally much closer to Old Tamil polity than has been recognized so far."

1.2 There are suggestions that connect the Dravidian speakers of Southern India to the regions North West of India. (K.A.Nilakanta Sastri, T. Burrow, Gilbert Slater, Lahovari, Kamil V. Zvelebil). Burrow cites Dravidian words in the Rig-Veda to claim that at one time, the Punjab and adjacent areas were occupied by Dravidian speaking people. Kamil.V.Zvelebil who labels the Dravidians as 'mountain people' and 'a highlander folk' locates them "sitting, sometimes round 4000 B.C., in the rugged mountainous areas of North-Eastern Iran" and estimates them to have "played an important even a leading role in the ethno linguistic composition of the Indus Valley Peoples."

1.3 Asko Parpola considers the place-names of the Harappan area as 'one more potential sources of clues to identifying the Harappan language.' However as I. Mahadevan puts it; the 'vast gap in time and space' is that inhibits suggestions to any direct link between the IVC and the Dravidian speakers of Southern India. Following the above leads and using the Onomastic tools, I seek to advance fresh evidence that I believe, would bridge this 'gap' and simultaneously probe Zvelebil's statement on Dravidians "sitting …in the rugged mountainous areas of North-Eastern Iran."

1.4 Place names are potential witness to history and linguistic pre-history of a region and provide reliable markers for past migrations. The efficacy of Onomastics in mapping past migrations has a proven track record across cultures. For this study, I have used two types of toponymic materials, first one a data base consisting of 1.26 million contemporary place names of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan. The second one is an Onomastic glossary, compiled from Caṅkam Tamil texts, consisting of toponyms, ethnonyms such as tribe names, clan names and personal names of kings, chieftains and poets.

1.6 Being the ancient extant Dravidian literature that refers to the geographies beyond the current Tamil boundaries, particularly on the west coast, the Caṅkam corpus offers a 'mezzanine view' to get closer to IVC spatially and temporally and provides a bench-mark for assessing the antiquity of 'name-transfers.'

1.7 For the sake of convenience, I note the countries north-west of India, mentioned above, as IVB (i.e. Indus Valley and Beyond). I use the term 'Dravidian' strictly in the linguistic sense without any racial or ethnic connotation.

The Evidence

Dravidian Glossonyms as Place Names in IVB

2.1 In IVB, there are place names such as Tamileh, Teleng, Karunad, Todah, Badagh, Kota, Tulu, Kodagi, Kui, Gondi, Kond, Koya, Penga, Manda, Kolamu, Naik, Pargi, Gadbah, Kuruk, Malar, Kisan and Brahui and these names at once remind us of the glossonyms of almost all languages and dialects of Dravidian family. The place name Brahui occurs in the very area where Brahui language is spoken. All these names barring Brahui may not make the sense of 'Dravidian glossonyms' in their current locations; yet provide a prima facie case for further investigation.

Identical Toponyms of Tamilnadu and IVB

2.2 The place names Ambal, Alur, Amur, Arani, Arasur, Asoor, Asur, Avur, Ayal, Ayyur, Badur, Emam, Harur, Hosur, Injar, Kanjur, Kallur, Kalur, Kandur, Kanjur, Kinar, Kodur, Kolur, Kondur, Korkai, Kumani, Kundah, Kuram, Kuruchi, Landai, Manathal, Manathi, Manur, Mashar, Mohur, Muttal, Nagal, Nagoor, Nalli, Palur, Pasar, Pasur, Polur, Ramalai, Segal, Salur, Selur, Sembar, Senji, Shandan, Solani, Taniyal, Tanur, Thalli, Thandarai, Tirur, Tondi, Tular and Ural. It is relevant to note that place names such as Amur, Avur, Ayyur, Mohur, Kallur, Korkai, Nalli and Tondi recall the exact place names attested in Caṅkam texts.

Concurrent Suffixes and Prefixes

2.3 IVB toponyms contain suffix elements that remind us of Caṅkam Tamil place name suffixes such as ūr,nāṭu,
il, āṟu, vāyil, kāṭu, cēri, turai, kuṉṟu, talai, paḷḷi, pākkam, kāṉam, paṭappai, kōḻi, poṟai, ciṟai, vāi, nakar, kūṟṟam, kai, pēri, pēr, pāram, maṇi, varai, and malai . Similarly, prefixes that remind the Caṅkam place name prefixes such as aralai, ār, cikkaṟ, kurā, āl, vākai, vēl, ukāi, kaṭial, ṉocci, muḷḷi, cilampu, takaṭu, alai, kōval and aṭṭa etc., are also used in IVB toponyms.

Generic Names of Caṅkam Geography as Toponyms of IVB

2.4 The place names Kurinj, Kurinch, Mullai Koh, Marud, Marundam, Neytal and Palai of IVB are comparable with the generic names of physical-climatic regions (tiṇai) of Caṅkam Tamil geography namely kuṟiñci, mullai, marutam, neytal and pālai.

2.5 The place names such as Malai, Malay, Kodu, Kodur, Kunru, Warai, Kal, Mudi, Parai, Vidar, Sunai, Enal; Kadu, Kanam, Tandal, Colay, Patappeh, Pulai, Pulay, Purai, Adawiy, Kanal; Aru, Yaru, Turai, Eri, Karai, Kalani, Manal, Wandala, Punam; Munnir, Alakar,Kalari, Alai; Palai, Suram and Kurumbai of IVB are comparable with the generic names associated with the physical-climatic regions of Caṅkam Tamil landscape. Besides, toponyms Nilam, Nilai, Kalam, Tarai, Titai, Teru, Manai, Kadai, Vali are comparable with the exact terms attested in Caṅkam texts that provide the sense of 'place.'

Specific Names of Caṅkam Territories and Places and IVB toponyms

2.6 The place names Ambar, Korkai, Tondi, Tonri, Totti, Ilam, Kachi, Kakkai, Kanam, Kadavud, Kalar, Kolli, Kongu, Kodai, Kodi, Koli, Selli, Nalai, Neri, Padali, Param, Palai, Pali, Puli, Pothi, Por, Malli, Mantai, Mosi, Vanci, Vallar, Vakai, Vani, Virai, Kari, Tulu, Milai and Vanni are the exact parallels of place names attested in Caṅkam texts. Besides, Caṅkam place names araṅkam, kaṇṭīram, kavīram, kurālam, mārōkkam, caiyam, naviram, māntaram, mutiram and toṇṭakam can be derived by adding 'am' ending to the place names Arang, Kandir, Kavir, Kural, Marokh, Chai, Navir, Mantar, Mudirah and Tondak of IVB. Toponyms kuṟukkai and kutirai of Caṅkam texts are derivable from Kuruk and Kutir of IVB.

2.6 Names of capital towns, battle fields, ports, and places associated with various kings, chieftains and poets attested in Caṅkam texts occur as place names in IVB. Toponyms such as Vanji, Tondi, Urai, Matrai, Gudal, Korkay, Attawail, Khodakaram, Talai, Alankhan, Kalumalhan, Kariyar, Amur, Wakai, Neri, Kolli and Pali can be cited as few examples.

Caṅkam Oronyms and Hydronyms in IVB toponymy

2.6 The IVB toponyms Potikeh, Poti , Podineh, Podini Ghar, Podin , Palani , Ayir Kuhe , Avi, Navir, Parambu Darrahe , Kutir, Kutiru , and Toti evoke the names of various hills attested in Caṅkam texts.

2.7 Pohru is the name of a tributary of Jhelum River in Pakistan where Pakhral and Pakrud occur as toponyms. In the adjoining Himalayan region of Garhwal in Uttarakhand (in India) Bakroli occurs as a toponym where we come across Kumari also as a place name. These names are comparable with paḵruḷi and kumari the 'lost river and mountain' of Tamils attested in ancient Tamil texts. Besides, toponyms Poruns, Porni, Wainai, Waigal, Kavir, Kaweri Wala, Kavari, Kariyar and Seyareh are comparable with similar hydronyms of Caṅkam. The significance Bakroli and Kumari being toponyms in the Indus-Harappan neighbourhoods cannot be missed.

Names of Tamil dialect regions in IVB

2.8 Place names Pongan, Pongarwali, Oliani, Pandi, Kutta, Kudah, Kudam, Karka, Wen, Puli, Pandrio Wah, Malai, Arva, Talai, Sidha and Puna at once remind us of the 'twelve lands of Tamil regional dialects' enumerated in ancient Tamil texts and commentaries.

Relics of IVB Toponyms in Caṅkam Anthroponomy

2.9 The place names Ayar, Kalamar, Marawar, Kowalow, Govalan, Eyin, Kalai, Widala, Kanav, Mili, Iday and Potu remind us of tribe names such as āyar,kaḷamar, maṟavar, kōvalar, eyiṉar, viṭalai, kāṉavar, miḷi, iṭayar and potuvar attested in Caṅkam texts. Besides, place names such as Konkar, Kosar, Andar, Malavan, Malayer, Kuraveh, Avi are comparable with the territorial clan names such as koṅkar, kōcar, aṇṭar, maḻavar, malayar, kuṟavar and
āviyar of Caṅkam texts.

cēra, cōḻa and pāṇṭiyā names in IVB

2.9 The place names Cheran, Ceran, Seran, Serar, Seral, Cheral, Cheranman Deh, Cheramakan, Chola, Pandian Wali, Pandi, Pandiar at once remind us of Tamil dynasties namely cēra, cōḻa and pāṇṭiyās.
Besides, IVB toponyms such as Porai, Kotai, Udian,Udhiar, Adan, Kutvar, Kutva, Killi, Valavar, Valudi, Chelian Wali and Maran are comparable with the titles of Tamil Royals.

Names of Caṅkam Kings as Place names in IVB

2.10 Karikalan, Karikala and Garikal are place names in countries such as Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan. Apart from Karikalan, place names such as Sibi, Kavera, Manak, Chengan, Chelkeli, Kalangai, Andevan, Mandar, Mandaran, Marban, Marivan, Maran Kirri, Makirri, Kuaichina remind us of the names of Caṅkam kings namely cipi, kavēraṉ, maṇak kiḷḷi, ceṅkaṇāṇ, cēlkeḻu, kaḷaṅkāy kaṇṇi, antuvaṉ, māntaraṉ, mārpaṉ, mārivaṇ, māṟaṉkīrti and kāyciṉa vaḻuti.

Names of Caṅkam Chieftains as Place Names in IVB

2.11 Kapilar, the Caṅkam poet, links the ancestors of vēḷir, the Chieftains of Caṅkam Age to Tuvarai, identified with Dwaraka in West India. Place names such as Adiyaman, Adiaman, Nedaman, Anji, Titan, Titian, Panni, Nalli, Killi, Pegan, Kodan, Pari, Pittan, Korran, Pindan, Matti, Muwan, Anni, Minzli, Kiran, Andevan, Andwam, Alise, Kati, Velian, Udian and Atan of IVB are the exact parallels of names of Caṅkam chieftains atiyamāṉ neṭumāṉ añci, ṭittaṉ, tiṭiyaṉ, paṉṉi, nalli, kiḷḷi, pēkaṉ, kōṭaṉ, pāri, piṭṭaṉ koṟṟaṉ, piṇṭaṉ, matti, mūvaṉ, aṉṉi, miñili, kīraṉ, antuvaṉ, aḻici, kaṭṭi, veḷiyaṉ, utiyaṉ, and ātaṉ respectively. Similarly, the chieftain names ṭōṉṟikkō, kaṇṭīrakkō,
viccikkō, ēṟaikkōṉ, kaḷvar kōmāṉ, āvikkōmāṉ, ampar kiḻāṉ and
malli kiḻāṉ can be obtained by adding kō, kōṉ, kōmāṉ and kiḻāṉ to place names Tonri, Kandir, Wichli, Aerai, Kalvar, Avi, Ampar and Malli respectively.

Place name parallels for Agastiya and kaṇṇaki legends

2.12 The legend of Agastiya, the Tamil muṉi (sage) has a significant relevance in the context of southward migrations, for Caṅkam texts connect the sage to the migration of vēḷir and aruvāḷar to ancient Tamil country. The place names Aghast, Aghastev, Merui, Meru Chak, Duvarki, Duwarayj, Windiyah, Vel, Ariwala, Kavari, Kaweri Wala, Potikeh, Potiyan and Poti of IVB provides a thematic template for reconstructing the genesis of Agastiya legend. Similarly, the place names Kannyaki, Govalan, Madavai, Machat, Machchat, Chelian Wala, Kutva, Kutvar, Elang , Pumbakar, Bukhar, and Vanji of IVB read together would account for almost all the lead names and places i.e kaṇṇaki, kōvalaṉ, mātavi, mācāttuvāṉ, ceḻiyaṉ, kuṭṭuvaṉ, iḷaṅkō, pūmpukār and vañci associated with first Tamil epic cilappatikāram.

Tamil Theonyms as IVB Toponyms

2.15 The IVB place names such as Mayan, Mayavar, Mal, Perumal Kuhe, Mal Kuhe, Seyan, Muruk, Murugan Wala, Murghan, Murgu Wali, Vel, Velu, Vellan, Welan, Kumaran Wali, Vendar, Siv, Sivan, Shivan, Esan, Esar, Valli, Korri, Korrai, Korrami, Anang, Anangurai, Kamawel, Kaman, Kurram, Kurran Manda, Sur, Suran etc., remind us of almost all theonyms connected to ancient Tamil pantheon. Besides, the place names such as Palani, Podini Ghar, Avi, Eraka, Yerak, Sent, Sental, Chendi, Cendi, Alaiwi, Alaiwah, Parangu, Parang, Kunru, Colay , Tanike and Tani remind us of Tamil god murukaṉ 's abodes attested in Caṅkam texts and in subsequent literature namely āvi naṉkuṭi (identified with potiṉi and paḻaṉi), ērakam, alaivāy or centī, paraṅkuṉṟu, paḻamutircōlai and taṇikai.

koṅku vēḷāḷar and their probable Indus connection

2.18 Traditional accounts place koṅku vēḷāar (KV) as migrants in their current location; the name Koṅku and many other toponyms and clan names of Koṅku population have an attested antiquity traceable to Caṅkam texts and early inscriptions; the concept of kūṭṭam (clan organization) is still well preserved by KV and the choice of KV for this case study is prompted by these factors. And, this could be true of many other Tamil communities as well.

2.19 Kong and Konguiyeh are place names in Pakistan and Iran respectively. Besides, toponyms Arai, Kovank, Mann, Kavaik, Kavash, Chemba, Tanak, Talaiyeh, Gilangan, Tataia, Padi, Araia, Kurumbai, Kurumb, Palana, Varak, Mulazai, Kangeh, Turan, Anda, Mana, Gavadeh, Uruk, Waiyanwali, Tanakkot, Valakvand, Kanjik and Wangara recall the territorial names of KV ethno- geography.

2.20 kāṇi villages (foundational settlements) have a significant place in the settlement history of KV. Place names Kalankani, Manur, Mulachi, Atani, Tolur, Palani, Tusi, Aliyar, Korrai, Kokkali, Kathyari, Katheli, Punna, Kotur, Kuhal, Vidar, Monjan Kuhe, Monjar, Totali, Pattal, Mangal, Pappin, Tidiman, Navan, Nawani River, Vizhnan, Kalyan and Kalyana of IVB remind us of exact or similar names of kāṇi villages of various clans of KV.

2.21 The IVB place names Andevan, Andwam, Adhi, Adakar, Alaku, Alagan, Avan, Adar, Odalan, Kannar, Sengani, Sengan, Ceran, Pandiar, Billan, Adai, Avalan, Manian, Madai, Muthan, Mulan, Meti, Vani, Turan, Kalvi, Kaman, Kadai, Kari, Kodian, Korran, Govan, Chekan, Sekan, Nagan, Nilan, Padari, Unnahar, Osai, Kamban, Kavalan, Karai, Kirai, Kolli, Kotar, Soman, Tatai, Nandar, Narai, Nerian, Pasai, Vendar, Velian, Antai Ghar, Injar, Oluk Kuhe, Kulai, Kooreh, Sembar, Ceda Kuhe, Panay, Auriyeh, Puchanigi, Pusar, Periyu, Bonan, Bonneh, Maila, Malavan, Vanak, Vileh, Tanacoy, Thoda, Pawala, Uriani, Kanak, Kawur, Kungi, Khommar, Korak, Sathan, Chelian Wala, Toiyan Tangi, Neytal, Panakham, Panaka, Venai, Payram, Padumi, Kalanjar, Kuylar, Kondarun, Kolayir, Chanak, Chellan Kuhe, Soluk and Nirani show exact oneness with or resemblance to the clan names (kūṭṭam) of KV.

2.22 The name antuvaṉ is attested in Caṅkam texts as personal name of a cērā king and a chieftain. While tirupparaṅkuṉṟam inscription mentions of antuvaṉ; we come across names such as antuvaṉ,
āntai, cāttantai, paṇṇaṉ, kaṇṇaṉ,maṇiyaṉ, vaṇṇakkaṉ in āṟuṉāṭṭārmalai inscriptions, aṟacalūrmalai inscription and in koṭumaṇal potshreds.

Dravidian Place Names in Maharashtra and Gujarat: The "Name-Bridge"

2.22 These identical names do not exist as unconnected islands. The evidence for connecting links is available in the toponymic corpuses of areas that fall in between. In Maharashtra, we come across numerous place names with Dravidian suffixes such as palli, ur, veli, cheri, patti, kuppam, padi, neri, vayal, vani (wani), vali and wadi. Toponym kaḷḷūr, attested in Caṅkam texts is currently used in Pakistan, Maharashtra and all the four southern States. Manur is common to Pakistan, Maharashtra and three Southern States namely Tamilnadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. In Gujarat, place names with suffixes such as Palli, Mal, Pati, Seri and Vali are in use; 'Malai' is a mono-word place name in Gujarat.

Evaluation of Evidence

3.1 While assessing the evidentiary value of these identical names we need to take the following points into consideration. 1. Names exist even in the most primitive societies. Names pre-existed the emergence and have outlived the decline and fall of civilizations. 2. The causative relationship between the migration of people and migration of names is a known fact. 3. Super-imposition of anthroponomical data on toponymic data is justified for there is close association and contributory relationship between these two sets of names. 4. In using the place name evidence to investigate the linguistic affiliation of IVC we are following an existing track. 5. The identical place names referred to in this paper cannot be mere coincidences for they form definite thematic clusters; show coherence. 6. There is spatial contiguity in these occurrences as evident from the toponyms of Gujarat and Maharashtra. 7. There is temporal contiguity in the form of attestations in Caṅkam texts followed by an uninterrupted continuity in usage in ancient potsherds, early inscriptions, medieval literature and the current usage. 8. In the ancient Tamil texts, there are references to displacements, migrations and 'lost homelands.' 9. Using the temporal benchmark of Caṅkam attestation we can estimate the antiquity of these name transfers that clearly situate the Dravidian language speakers in general and specifically the ancestors of Caṅkam Tamils in the north-western geographies particularly in the countries such as Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan and this is likely to have a consequential say in assessing the validity of 'Dravidian Hypothesis' on IVC.

Caveats

3.2 Let me file a few caveats. These toponyms may have different 'meaning' or 'folk-etymologies' in their current locations in IVB. But, it does not dilute the merit in our argument. Finding the 'correct etymology' in any case is not the objective of this paper and the 'etymological traps' are better avoided. Even if we take the identical place names as mere 'identical sequence of vowels and consonants', they still merit serious consideration.

3.3 Opinion may vary with reference to the origin and direction of these name transfers. I have dealt with this issue in an elaborate manner in the full version of my paper. Notwithstanding the possibilities of different readings of these evidences, we can say that these identical names clearly situate the Dravidian-speakers in the 'cross junctions' of the Indus-Harappa areas. Place names cannot be a standalone evidence to give a definite time-line for these name transfers. Caṅkam attestations can provide a bench-mark. However, Archaeology and other allied fields will have a substantial role to play in this.

3.5 By adducing this evidence, we are not shifting the location of all the Caṅkam events to other geographies nor we are suggesting that Caṅkam kings and chieftains had a 'non-stop journey' from north-western geographies, but, certainly I intend to propose that the genesis of names of Caṅkam kings and chieftains can be traced to IVB toponyms which they probably inherited as their patronyms indicative of an ancestral association with those geographies. The question is how remote was that association and about its consequential impact on IVC.

3.6 At this stage, let me recall M.A Dorai Rangaswamy, who did an extensive study of the surnames of Caṅkam Age. He said: "It is the memory of the old traditions that could have been preserved if at all in these names. These names because of their distinction and difference may be looked upon as a vague memory of an ancient tribal organization."

Conclusions

4.1 The "Dravidian Hypothesis" can be verified from both the ends. While the remnants of probable Dravidian past are traceable in the toponyms of north western geographies, the markers for the Indus links are readable in the Caṅkam texts and the legacy is still preserved in the ethnonyms and toponyms of contemporary Tamils. It seems that a concurrent and contextual reading of toponyms of the north-western geographies, Onomastic corpus of Caṅkam texts, toponyms and ethnonyms of contemporary Tamils may hold the 'key' to understanding the linguistic composition of IVC as well as the obscure pages of the prehistory of Caṅkam Tamils.


*

Notes and References :


[1] This paper is an abridged version of my detailed study on the subject. Due to restriction on the size of the article I could not include the Maps and Tables with geo-coordinate details.

[1] Parpola, Asko, Deciphering the Indus Script, 1994, Cambridge University Press, Chakravarti D.K, Battle for ancient India.

[1] Mahadevan, Iravatham, Vestiges of Indus Civilization in Old Tamil, Tamilnadu History Congress 2009 (pre-print of lecture).

[1] Parpola, Asko, op.cit

[1] I have referred to Caṅkam Tamil texts in original. References to various Caṅkam names and terms quoted in this paper can be obtained in Lehmann Thomas & Malten Thomas, A Word Index for Cankam Literature, Madras: Institute of Asian Studies, 1993.

[1] Puṟanāṉūṟu 9:8-11, cilappatikāram 11:18-20

[1] Puṟanāṉūṟu, 201, u.vē.cāminātāiyar, 1985, puṟanāṉūṟu mūlamum uraiyum, tamiḻp palkakaikkaḻakam, tañcāvūr.

[1] Purananuru 201: 8-12

[1] For details on koṅku vēḷāḷar, Rasu. Ce, koṅku vēḷāḷar ceppēṭu paṭṭayaṅkaḷ, koṅku āyvu maiyam, Erode, 2007, koṅku vēḷāḷar kalveṭṭum kāṇip pāṭalkaḷum, koṅku āyvu maiyam, Erode, 2007; Nataracan Nal. Turan, , koṅku vēḷāḷar varalāṟu, Pallavi Patippakam, Erode, 2006 may be referred to.

[1] Apart from the caṅkam reference to the ‘lost river and mountain’, iṟaiyaṉār akapporuḷurai gives an account on the ancient displacements on account of natural calamities and establishment of first, second and third tamiḻc caṅkams by pāṇṭiyā kings.

[1] Dorai Rangaswamy, The surnames of the Cankam age literary & tribal, University of Madras, 1947-48: p.106


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